Saturday, June 19, 2010
Infected by a new social Miyazaki ◆
。 18 Miyazaki city, new found infected cattle suspected infected of Anthrax. Miyazaki is the cause of the second location following the April 10, and the spread continues to be a fit.
The problem is infected of Anthrax, Miyazaki Prefecture, on livestock must be disposed of immediately, but the goal of a disposition to finish 20th, out from behind some local work and the impact of rain has become a difficult goal to achieve.
06/18 18:27 06/18 18:27
Miyazaki infected of Anthrax problem is to prevent the spread of infection, if you are asking residents to refrain from such events and gatherings, and extends life affects local economies and citizens.
|Propaganda meeting for prevention|
NDDT - Today 18-6, pediatrics - Hue Central Hospital said hot weather and erratic showers should dengue fever outbreak in Thua Thien - Hue.
In Pediatrics, the average per day from 200 to 250 children to visit, have individual on up to 500 children, of which 30 to 40 children are hospitalized for inpatient treatment. Particularly in the first 15 days in May and June, at pediatric received more than 300 dengue fever patients, most of hemorrhage at 1 and 2 degrees, more cases to be closely monitored for shock timely treatment.
According to doctors pediatrics - Hue Central Hospital and characteristics of dengue fever is now more severe, more complicated, there are 10 patients on prolonged fever, coma, respiratory failure soon , when complications have liver, kidney, brain.
Health officials TT-Hue use manual methods to capture mosquitoes.
Doctor Dinh Quang Tuan, head of pediatrics, said: We are dengue fever season, children aged 2-15 years old when the fever must first think of dengue fever. Therefore, children should drink fever, drink more water oseron ensure water supply concentrates avoid blood against the patient. When patients show signs of tooth bleeding, blood oranges, abdominal pain, struggle, especially on third down 3-4 away to give to health facilities, especially for pediatric emergency time .
Dr. Tran Nhu Duong, Deputy Director of the Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, said the new virus disease caused by this situation caused basically the same with Japanese encephalitis virus. The disease begins with high fever, seizures, mental status changes, but it was different and more dangerous than the virus causing encephalitis virus is usually sudden death, in which disease concentrated in age groups under 15, highest in children under 5 years old.
Saturday, 19/06/2010, 01:06 (GMT +7)
(SGGP) .- Cholera is a tendency to increase in the Mekong Delta. 18-6 to date, there have been four localities include Ben Tre, Tien Giang, Can Tho and An Giang matched patients with cholera. The localities in the region are urgently implement measures to prevent this serious disease.
In An Giang, less than three months after successful control in border areas, cholera broke out again right in the heart of the province. In two days 16 and 17-6, An Giang health official confirmed four cases of cholera in Long Xuyen and Cho Moi district, being isolated treatment. Most worryingly, only in Binh Khanh ward, Long Xuyen City has three cases described.
Previously, on 6-6, a case in Vinh Chanh (Thoai Son district) were sent to families in An Giang General Hospital emergency, identify positive for cholera. Through testing, the Pasteur Institute in HCMC river water determined An Phu district (An Giang) have cholera. Meanwhile, Tien Giang province have recorded cases of cholera in the first commune, My Duc Tay, Cai Be district. This is the patient's husband described her name D.TL (Live together in the same house in the south west Germany), is being treated in hospital Perfect Delta (Cai Rang district, Can Tho).
Most in Ben Tre, cholera has spread to five districts including South Mo Cay, North Mo Cay, Thanh Phu, Giong Trom, Chau Thanh with about 50 cases and more than 500 cases of acute diarrhea in the province. Most patients are concentrated in Southern Mo Cay District, Mo Cay North leads to overload in hospital Cu Lao Minh area. The worry is the status of waste treatment of the patient is not thoroughly, spread of pathogens into the environment of water. Results of the medical examination showed that the Mo Cay River have cholera.
Avian influenza, though a few years ago, this threat to humanity, returned program in Russia. In Ovyurskogo area Tyva Republic, which borders with Mongolia, in the lake Ubsa-Nur discovered the bodies of 85 wild birds
Already established that the cause of death of birds was the bird flu. Because of the risk of a dangerous virus in the region entered the regime of emergency. Are quarantine measures. The first outbreak of bird flu occurred in Tuva in 2006. Then killed 4,000 ducks.
First human infection with the virus of bird flu was recorded in 1997 in Hong Kong. It was found that the infection is deadly. The first epidemic began in 2004 when the disease in poultry has spread to Asia and Europe, and cases of infection and deaths have become frequent. Since then more than 250 of the nearly 400 known infections resulted in the death of patients.
The main fear of doctors is a mutation of the strain H5N1, from which it can be transmitted from person to person. The consequence of this change will be a pandemic of avian influenza, the victims of which by various estimates can be from 30-40 million to a third of the world's population.
Friday, June 18, 2010
WHO is actively monitoring the progress of the pandemic through frequent consultations with the WHO Regional Offices and Member States and through monitoring of multiple sources of information.
The situation remains largely unchanged since the last update. Overall pandemic influenza activity remains low worldwide with geographically limited circulation of pandemic influenza virus in parts of the tropics, particularly in parts of Central America and the Caribbean and in parts of South and Southeast Asia. Seasonal influenza type B viruses continue to circulate at low levels across Asia and to a lesser extent across parts of Africa and South America. Recently re-emerged seasonal influenza H3N2 viruses continue to circulate in East Africa. As countries of the temperate southern hemisphere enter winter, overall only sporadic influenza activity has been detected so far...
AVIAN INFLUENZA (38): WORLD UPDATE, FAOIn this update:
[1,2] FAO reports
 FAO report
Date: Tue 15 Jun 2010
From: Akiko Kamata <Akiko.Kamata@fao.org> [edited]
FAO Animal Influenza Disease Emergency News [FAOAIDEnews], situation update 67
------------------------------------------------------------------------------At a glance: the latest HPAI outbreaks for the period 1 May-15 Jun 2010
-----A total of 24 H5 HPAI positive cases were reported in 12 governorates
during 1-31 May 2010:
Behera (1), Beni Suef (1), Dakahlia (4), Fayoum (1), Gharbiya (2),
Helwan(2), Luxor (3), Menoufia (4), Port Said (1), Qalioubiya (1), Sharkiya
(1), and Sixth of October (3) (The number of outbreaks in the governorate
is in brackets), and there has been no outbreak reported during June 2010.
Most of the outbreaks were in household poultry except for one commercial
farm in Luxor Governorate. One outbreak in Gharbiya was reported in
A H5N1 HPAI outbreak in Rajshahi Division (Bogra District) was reported on
20 May 2010.
The Participatory Disease Surveillance & Response (PDSR) programme, through
33 Local Disease Control Centres, covers 70 338 villages in 84 per cent of
Indonesia's 448 districts and municipalities in 29 of its 33 provinces.
During April 2010, PDSR conducted surveillance in 2278 villages (3.2 per
cent). The overall HPAI incidence was 1.0 newly found infected village per
1000 villages in the coverage area, but incidence varied widely between
provinces. The 4 highest provinces for incidence were Yogyakarta (9.1),
Jawa Tengah (3.4), Lampung (2.8), and Kepulauan Bangka Belitung (2.7). The
number of newly infected villages found during April 2010 by island is: 27
in Sumatra, 44 in Java, and 1 in Kalimantan.
A total of 26 whooper swans (_Cygnus cygnus_) and greylag geese (_Anser
anser_) died at Ganga Lake, Dariganga Soum, Sukhbaatar Aimag on 3 May 2010.
On 8 May 2010, H5N1 HPAI was confirmed by the national laboratory by HA,
RT-PCR and RRT-PCR.
--------Outbreaks of H5N1 HPAI [which] occurred in Dak Lak Province in May 2010 and
Quang Nam Province in June 2010 were reported on the Government website.
The last outbreak occurred on 2 Jun 2010 in ducks in Duy Thanh Commune Duy
Xuyen District of central Quang Nam Province.
------Between 29 Apr 2010 and 4 May 2010, 2 emus (_Dromaius novaehollandiae_)
died after losing appetite in a small zoological garden in Ein Gedi,
Hadarom District. Their brain samples tested positive for H5N1 HPAI by PCR.
No birds have been introduced in the mini-zoo for several months.
Chief, Animal Health Service / CVO-FAO
Animal Production & Health Division
Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations
 FAO report
Date: Tue 15 Jun 2010
From: Akiko Kamata <Akiko.Kamata@fao.org> [edited]
FAO Animal Influenza Disease Emergency News [FAOAIDEnews], situation update 67
H5N1 HPAI global overview April 2010: worldwide situation
[From the said detailed review, we hereby present the conclusions chapter.
Since 2003, 63 countries/territories have experienced outbreaks of H5N1
HPAI. The last newly infected country was Bhutan in February 2010.
Effective control measures for outbreaks in poultry have been associated
with reduced incidence of human infections in several countries. However,
H5N1 HPAI remains entrenched in poultry in parts of Asia and Africa (Egypt)
and thus the risk of human infection remains.
The number of countries reporting outbreaks was less in 2009, when compared
with 2008, 2007, and 2006. However, the number of affected countries
between January and April 2010 already equals the number of affected
countries for the whole of 2009. The total number of outbreaks reported
shows a similar, but more pronounced, trend, although surprisingly, the
total number of outbreaks between January and April 2010 already surpasses
the number of outbreaks for the whole of 2009, 356 vs. 297. Nevertheless,
the number of reported outbreaks is a more subjective indicator than the
number of affected countries, because it is highly influenced by variables
such as the case definition used, the awareness level, the
intensity/effectiveness of surveillance programmes in countries and the
willingness to report. Although there has been an improvement in disease
awareness, outbreaks/cases of H5N1 HPAI are still likely to be
underestimated and underreported in some regions because of limitations in
the capacity of veterinary services to implement sensitive and
cost-effective disease surveillance, the lack of proper outbreak
investigations in the field, and the absence or weakness of compensation
Data from previous years have shown a peak in the number of outbreaks/cases
during the January-March 2010 period in terms of countries affected, number
of reported outbreaks and also human cases. In April 2010, it becomes
evident that we are in the decreasing trend that follows the high activity
season. While February 2010 constituted the peak so far this season in
terms of the number of outbreaks reported, the peak in terms of number of
countries affected was reached in March 2010. Overall, there is a
decreasing trend in the height of the peak as years go by. However, in
terms of number of outbreaks, and against the decreasing trend observed
since 2004, the peak height reached dimensions similar to the peaks of
2006-2007 and 2007- 2008, and considerably higher than the 2008-2009 peak.
This is explained by the higher contribution of Africa (Egypt) to the total
number of outbreaks, because of the implementation of a more intensive
surveillance programme (CAHO), together with the fact that vaccination of
backyard poultry was stopped in July 2009. It may also be related to a
reduction in the efficacy of control programmes (fatigue).
During 2010, H5N1 HPAI has reoccurred in several countries where the
disease was believed to have been eliminated (without vaccination):
Cambodia, Israel, Myanmar, Nepal, Romania, and Bulgaria. In the cases of
Bangladesh and India, that had reported no outbreaks in the 2nd half of
2009, a new wave of cases has been observed since the beginning of 2010.
Chief, Animal Health Service / CVO-FAO
Animal Production & Health Division
Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations
Updated Friday, June 18, 2010; 06:20 PM
By Stacy Moniot
Covering your nose and mouth whenever you cough or sneeze is a common reminder during flu season because it prevents particles from landing on surfaces and spreading through contact.
"You open a doorknob, you get it on your hands and then you wipe your eyes and bam!" said Steve Davis, the director of clinical research for WVU Emergency Medicine, "you have the flu. What we've started to show through our collaboration with NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) is that may not be the case."
The researchers collected air samples in the Urgent Care facility during the flu season in 2009. They found the flu virus in very small airborne particles traveling more than six or seven feet and easily inhaled.
"This is an air sampler that we've got," William Lindsley, a NIOSH biomedical researcher said, pointing to a collection system standing on a tall tripod. "Here are these yellow units that pull air out of the room."
Stationary collectors measured exposure to patients, and backpacks gauged the impact on doctors and nurses.
"So you can imagine if we have another epidemic, flu epidemic or swine flu epidemic," Davis said, "we certainly want the health care workers in place to be able to take care of patients."
Once they understand the virus, they can control the environment in clinics through factors like air flow and humidity to keep flu patients from spreading the virus to other patients and health care workers.
"There are things that we might be able to do other than just wearing masks to be able to decrease infection," Davis said, "and ultimately that's the goal of this process."
The next step is to find out if those particles still carry the live flu virus, meaning anyone could become infected by just inhaling the virus. Davis and Lindsley are working to develop the technology to test that possibility.
Daniel Meers June 19th, 2010
QUEENSLAND biosecurity officials have locked down an area near the Gold Coast Turf Club fearing a potential outbreak of the fatal Hendra virus which could cripple the multimillion-dollar industry.
Government officials have banned trainers indefinitely from walking their horses in the popular forest area near the racing precinct because of a fruit bat colony which could carry and pass on the illness through bodily fluids.
The danger could last several weeks with the council and environment protection agencies forced to preserve the protected species rather than cull or remove the breeding ground for the virus.
It is believed up to 1500 fruit bats may live in trees next to the state-of-the-art Traintech education facility opposite the racecourse.
The Hendra virus has killed four people since it was first discovered in Queensland in 1994.
If an outbreak did occur, the 600-horse precinct could be locked down.
Biosecurity Queensland horse industry liaison officer Fiona Thompson last night said the agency was not prepared to risk horses contracting the virus.
"Whenever there is the potential for flying fox-horse interaction you need to put those precautions in place," she said.
"Given we have an area with such a high density of horses surrounding a flying fox colony ... it increases the risk of horses coming in contact with excretions.
"The concern is there is a walkway there and you've got an area of overhanging trees where there is the potential for faeces and urine to come in contact with horses."
It is understood the council controls the land, and has been in discussions with the Department of Primary Industries to reach a solution, but their hands are tied by environmental regulations.
"Because of the conservation nature of this site, we must look at options that are environmentally sustainable," said a council spokesperson.
"Council is working with the Department of Environment and Resources Management, Department of Primary Industries and Biosecurity to reach a solution with this particular colony of bats."
A horse at Tewantin, on the Sunshine Coast, was euthanased on May 17 after contracting the virus.
June 18) -- Smoked monkey carcasses, preserved porcupines, giant rats and fresh crocodile meat, all stuffed into ordinary suitcases, make up the roughly 5 tons of African bushmeat smuggled into Paris every week for purchase by local ethnic restaurants, according to a team of international researchers.
Smuggling bushmeat, which sells for 10 times in Europe what it does in Africa, is considered a luxury business. But it's also a potentially serious health hazard for humans and animals, according to the results of an investigation by French and British researchers published this week in the journal Conservation Letters.
The investigation, thought to be the first systematic study of the scale and nature of the international bushmeat trade, was the brainchild of 27-year-old French veterinarian Anne-Lise Chaber, formerly of the Royal Veterinary College of London.
Chaber was present alongside customs officers at Paris' Charles de Gaulle airport during the 17-day operation when they chose random suitcases to open for inspection. About 40 percent of the meat came from endangered species, especially from Cameroon and the Central African Republic, areas of tropical forest where livestock such as cattle are not available and the consumption of wild animals, such as monkeys, is common.
In a telephone interview today with AOL News from her new job in a wildlife park in the United Arab Emirates, Chaber said her initial motivation to investigate bushmeat smuggling was a desire to protect endangered species.
She said she was unprepared for the sight of smoked monkey carcasses sliced in half and wrapped in newspapers in old suitcases -- and pieces of fresh crocodile floating in blood and tied up in plastic bags.
"It all smelled bad," Chaber said. "But I guess it's partly because I didn't grow up with it. I just found it disgusting."
Smuggling in meat, especially when the carcasses are poorly packed and preserved, can result in livestock diseases such as foot and mouth disease and swine fever as well as deadly viruses like ebola, said Marcus Rowcliffe, of the Zoological Society of London, another one of the researchers.
The AIDS virus was traced back to monkeys, and the global 2003 SARS outbreak began as a virus in bats and civets, arboreal mammals native to the tropics of Africa and Asia.
Rowcliffe said all the smuggled bushmeat is for human consumption. In Paris, most bushmeat is sold to African restaurants in the city's Chateau Rouge quarter.
"It's easy for westerners to think, yech, but people in some African immigrant communities in Paris, for example, grew up on this meat and it tastes good to them," Rowcliffe told AOL News today. "So there's a market for it -- a much bigger one than we realized, and a pretty profitable one."
Chaber recalled how she held a preserved porcupine just plucked from a suitcase in customs and noted out loud its foul smell.
"The person who had smuggled it in just reached over and took some of the porcupine from my hand and said she'd be happy to eat it," Chaber said. "It's just not something I'm used to."
Chaber said many recipes for cooking monkeys are available online. She said that most bushmeat is cooked for a long time to soften it before eating.
The investigation involved checking suitcases belonging to 134 passengers arriving on 29 flights from 14 African nations.
Nine people were found to be carrying a total of 188 kilograms of bushmeat from 11 different species, including two kinds of monkeys, two kinds of crocodiles and three types of rodent.
Rowcliffe said that researchers used that data to calculate that up to 270 tons of bushmeat may be smuggled in every year.
Rowcliffe also said that bushmeat smuggling is relatively easy and very lucrative. Customs officials don't make detection and seizure of it a priority, and even if smugglers are caught, penalties are rather low -- especially in light of how much the traders can make on the open market.
Posted by Bryan Walsh
The H1N1 flu pandemic last year came out of nowhere. Well, not exactly—H1N1 first emerged in human beings in Mexico. But that wasn't where most influenza experts were looking. The focus had been on southeast Asia, where the H5N1 avian flu had been infecting—and killing—human beings for the past few years. Most flu pandemics begin in that part of the world, where dense populations of people and animals comingle. H1N1 was different, however, and the world paid the price.But we may not have learned our lesson.
A new study in the June 17 edition of Science makes the case that there has been too little followup genetic surveillance of the H1N1 virus—and that we could be vulnerable to new strains. A team of researchers from Hong Kong sequenced viruses found in pigs in the city's largest slaughterhouse over the past year and a half. They found that the H1N1 virus that had caused a human pandemic last year—and which is still infecting people—had passed back into swine, and was mutating and reassorting with other viruses the pigs had been infected by. (Pigs can be infected by multiple strains of flu viruses, making them living viral mixing bowls.) The researchers worry that H1N1's mutations could change the virulence of the virus. Although there's no evidence that has happened, there have always been concerns that H1N1 might mix with H5N1 to produce a new virus that has the transmissability of the former—H1N has reached 200 counties and is still infecting people—and the severity of the latter, which has an observed mortality rate of nearly 60%.
We can't stop flu viruses from intermingling—that's just what they do. But we can try to keep close track of new viruses through genetic surveillance—just like the kind practiced by the researchers in Hong Kong, who've been testing the city's pigs for viruses as part of a 12-year-old U.S.-funded program. While major hog producers in the U.S. and Europe frequently test their pigs for flu viruses—which helps scientists keep track of what's going on among swine—that's rare among smaller producers in Asia, even though that's exactly where pandemics often begin. The Science study underscores the need for better surveillance in the developing world:
“The message from our paper is not an inevitable disaster around the corner, but the need for continued vigilance,” Malik Peiris, a flu expert at the University of Hong Kong and one of the study's authors, said in an e-mail message.
We were lucky with the H1N1 pandemic, which turned out to be relatively mild. So mild, in fact, that some have accused the World Health Organization of overhyping the virus. A damning recent report in British Medical Journal found that World Health Organization (WHO) advisors who called for the stockpiling of H1N1 vaccine had been previously on the payroll of the drug companies that made the vaccines. (The WHO has said that there is no evidence to show that it engaged in scaremongering during the pandemic.) But that's the thing about the flu—you never know when your luck will run out.
WASHINGTON (Xinhua Zheng Qiyuan) last year triggered a global influenza pandemic of influenza A H1N1 influenza virus has spread to Hong Kong to repeat the pig, and the emergence of genetic "shuffling", at any time can develop into another new pandemic Virus! University of Hong Kong research team in January of this year, for the first time in the pig samples found in a mixed human, pig, bird flu and influenza A H1N1 influenza virus genes entirely new. To study microbial experts say the new show influenza H1N1 virus in pigs in vivo influenza virus, the genetic "shuffling" restructuring, and whether the transmission of new viruses and threats to humanity, still await study. Centre for Health Protection said that if the virus a "shuffle" effect of the evolution of adult-human transmission after the virus could trigger a global pandemic.
University of Hong Kong through the Hong Kong Government and University research team co-monthly regular systematic influenza surveillance program, found that influenza A H1N1 influenza virus has spread to pigs duplication and recombination in the pig appear to produce a hybrid influenza H1N1 influenza and other viral genes the new virus. Research team in the last year, 10 months ago, not in the sample in a flow of pigs in Hong Kong virus, but in October last year to this year's January period, the sample was found to occur 4 times a flow of virus, the virus has been transmitted from human to pig repeat only. Meanwhile, Canada, the United States, Australia and Singapore have reported similar cases.
There are eight gene segments
In January this year, University of Hong Kong for the first time in the pig samples, we found that the genetic "shuffling" the new recombinant virus 8 gene segments from 3 different influenza viruses, including the 1989 discovery in North America , including people, birds, swine influenza virus genetic mixing of multiple European and Asian bird flu-like virus and influenza A H1N1 influenza virus. The new virus appears, showing the last outbreak of a pandemic virus with a flow of pigs available recombinant influenza virus "shuffle", evolved into other new influenza viruses.
Pig Pig pass without symptoms
Participated in the study of Hong Kong Department of Microbiology, Malik Peiris said the study found that a flow of transmission of the virus to the pigs, the pigs in vivo with other viruses, recombinant unpredictable and serious consequences. In further animal testing, no new virus can also spread disease in pigs land. However, he pointed out that as long as the meat cooked, eating pork is still safe.
Expert Calls for Global Monitoring
Another study 的 Kong Guan Yi, a professor of microbiology, said that although so far no indications that a new virus which will affect human pose an immediate threat, but pigs Ke Shi Wei virus gene "shuffling mixing vessel", not rule out a stream H5N1 avian influenza virus and the virus genes "shuffle" into the deadly virus to humans, calls for global pig should take systematic monitoring measures to prevent a major outbreak of new viruses. Results of the study, published yesterday, "Science" magazine.
Food and Environmental Hygiene Department spokesman said the CFS would help Hong Kong University researchers collected twice a month to a slaughter house, pig blood, throat and nasal samples for testing, monitoring of pigs infected with influenza virus, emphasizing that all live pigs into the slaughterhouse before, shall be subject to rigorous testing, before the supply to the market.
Multilateral cooperation in the field of infectious diseases will help develop cross-border linkages between countries.
ThienNhien.Net - Medical specialists and doctors from five countries: Vietnam, the United States, Laos, Thailand and Cambodia have had in meeting goals on 17 / 6 to discuss solutions, policy respond to infectious disease threats.
The discussion at the conference focused on two main themes: international health regulations and the counterfeit drugs / poor quality drugs for infectious diseases.
It is known that in Vietnam, the growing epidemic sharply over the same period of the year. Forecast in 2010, the risk of influenza A/H5N1 in humans can occur because the situation on bird flu also complicated. In addition, cholera outbreaks are also possible in summer.
Tove facing an outbreak of avian influenza
Tove facing an outbreak of avian influenza. At one of the lakes in the republic found 85 birds that died from the virus, the press service of the republican government.
Service vetnadzora Tuva identified in birds on the lake Uvs Nuur RNA of influenza A virus known as avian. June 17 epizootic situation in reservoirs discussed in the government of the republic of Tuva. A decision on the allocation of funds from the reserves of the Republic of measures of localizing the disease. Funds are needed for the synthesis of anti detachment.
Disposal of carcasses of wild birds killed by avian flu started on the lake Uvs Nuur, from 16 June. So far found only 85 dead birds from infection. Carcasses piled in pits and burned. After the destruction of the pit will be backfilled, enclosed by barbed wire and equipped with warning signs.
In addition to the Uvs-Noor, experts vetnadzora spent monitoring lakes Andaygyn and White, located in different parts of the country. Laboratory analysis of biological samples showed that the flu here yet spread.
Avian influenza is registered in Tuva second time. For the first time his flare observed in 2006 on the same lake Uvs Nuur, located on the border with Mongolia. Then the disease struck around 4 thousand wild birds, mostly ducks, but epizootia specialists prevented, explained in the press-service.
A Chinese research team used phylogenetic analyses to assess nearly three dozen H1N1 and H1N2 flu strains isolated from pigs at a Hong Kong slaughterhouse over almost a year, focusing largely on the 10 H1N1 2009 pandemic strains that have turned up there since last fall. The researchers found that while all of the H1N1/2009 isolates shared genes from the same lineage, those collected earlier were not genetically identical to those found more recently.
"[V]iruses from different sampling dates were genetically distinct from each other and also from H1N1/2009-like swine viruses isolated in other countries," Yi Guan, a microbiology and infectious disease researcher affiliated with the University of Hong Kong and Shantou University Medical College, and co-authors wrote, "indicating multiple independent introductions of these viruses from humans to swine."
The team also found that one of the isolates collected this year contained a gene from H1N1/2009 in combination with genes from other H1N1 and H1N2 viruses.
Consequently, they are urging increased surveillance of pig populations for tracking the viral reassortment, which they say could potentially spawn new forms of human flu.
"The 2009 pandemic, although mild and apparently contained at present, could undergo further reassortment in swine and gain virulence," the researchers wrote. "It is therefore important that surveillance in swine is greatly heightened and that all eight gene segments are genetically characterized so that such reassortment events are rapidly identified."
Past analyses of the 2009 pandemic H1N1 flu virus suggests it originated from the combination of flu strains from swine, bird, and human flu viruses — and likely circulated in pigs for several months before the first human infections were reported.
For the current study, researchers focused on 32 influenza strains isolated from pigs at a Hong Kong slaughterhouse. These included 10 H1N1/2009 strains, five European avian-like H1N1 strains, a single triple-reassorted H1N2 virus, and 16 other reassorted viruses.
Consistent with H1N1/2009 emergence outside of China, the team did not find any pandemic H1N1 flu in the pigs until they looked at samples collected last October — roughly four months after the World Health Organization declared an H1N1 pandemic.
But their phylogenetic analyses did turn up at least one reassorted virus containing a combination of H1N1/2009 genes not identified in the past.
When they investigated this isolate further, looking at the source of all eight genes, the researchers found that the virus contained one gene from H1N1/2009, one from a European avian-like H1N1 strain, and six more genes resembling those in triple-reassorted H1N2 strains.
Based on these findings, those involved in the study say additional research is needed to understand the genetic underpinnings of existing flu strains. And, they added, the presence of the reassorted strain in Chinese pigs — combined with past reports of bird and mammalian flu strains circulating in China — should spur increased flu surveillance efforts.
Thursday, June 17, 2010
HONG KONG (Reuters) - The H1N1 swine flu virus has been spreading quietly in pigs in Hong Kong and swapping genes with other viruses, and researchers said the findings support calls for tighter disease surveillance in pigs before new bugs can emerge and infect people.
The finding, published in Science on Friday, is important as it supports the theory that flu viruses infecting swine can swap genes with other viruses that are in pigs, including more dangerous bugs like the H5N1 or H9N2 bird flu viruses.
Malik Peiris, an influenza expert who worked on the study, said the discovery underlines the importance of disease surveillance in pigs.
"It demonstrates the pandemic virus can easily go back to pigs. Once it does so, it can reassort with other pig viruses and give rise to potentially unexpected consequences," said Peiris, a microbiology professor at the University of Hong Kong.
Peiris and colleagues, including Guan Yi at the University of Hong Kong, have found pandemic H1N1 viruses in nasal swabs taken from apparently healthy pigs at a Hong Kong abattoir during routine checks since October 2009.
"From genetic analysis, what it suggests is each of those viruses we found in pigs all came from humans," Peiris said in a telephone interview.
"It is not surprising because the pandemic virus emerged from pigs, so it is not surprising that it goes back to pigs."
PANDEMIC VIRUS SWAPS GENES IN PIGS
A sample isolated from Hong Kong pigs in January 2010 carried genes from three viruses - the pandemic H1N1, a European "avian like" H1N1 and a so-called "triple reassortant" virus containing bits of human, pig and bird flu viruses which was first discovered in North America in 1998.
"This suggests that the pig is a place where the pandemic virus might actually change and reassort and get new properties possibly," Peiris said.
"The pandemic virus in humans has been extremely stable. It hasn't changed at all even though people were concerned it might reassort and mix with human viruses ... but it seems that it can mix with other flu viruses (in a pig)."
Genetic research has suggested that H1N1, first identified in people in April 2009, had in fact been circulating for at least a decade and probably in pigs. Despite tight controls on herd to protect them from people, little checking is done globally to see whether food herds are infected and if so, with what viruses.
Studies in the past year have turned up pigs in Canada and other countries infected with the pandemic H1N1 virus, evidently carried to the animals by people.
"I must emphasize the point that it doesn't mean that pork is dangerous to eat at all (if well cooked). What it means is it is important to carry out systematic surveillance in pigs so we know what is going on in pigs in regard to influenza viruses in general and the pandemic virus in particular," Peiris said.
Pigs are the reservoir of many human, bird and swine viruses and experts often refer to them as an ideal mixing vessel for new, and possibly more dangerous pathogens.
Asked if there was a possibility of the H1N1 getting mixed up with the H5N1, Peiris said: "That is certainly a possibility, that's why we need to keep track.
"If it is quite able to readily reassort and pick up genes from pig viruses, you might have other combinations of genes that can arise. Unless we are alert to it, we potentially could have a virus that is ... more virulent coming back to humans."
Although H5N1 is a mostly avian virus, it causes more severe illness in people than seasonal flu and kills 60 percent of the people it infects. It has infected 499 people and killed 295 of them since re-emerging in 2003.
The World Health Organization said early in June that the H1N1 pandemic was not yet over although its most intense activity has passed in many parts of the world.
Opening the meeting, Deputy Health Minister Trinh Quan Huan Vietnam emphasized today, infectious diseases, particularly emerging infectious diseases affect people's lives. Some diseases have been controlled in many countries now tend to return as cholera.
According to Deputy Minister, war prevention and control of infectious diseases is not only a country's duties, but of all countries worldwide.
As known, in 2010, epidemics in Vietnam also increased over the same period the previous year. Forecast in 2010, the risk of influenza A/H5N1 in humans can occur because the situation on bird flu also complicated. The risk of complications from type 2 virus (influenza A/H1N1 and influenza A/H5N1 virus) are very close and become major concerns. In addition, cholera is also complicated and can break out in summer.
The conference took place in two days (17-18/6), with the participation of health professionals and doctors from five countries are Vietnam, the United States, Laos, Thailand and Cambodia.
The discussion at the conference focused on two main themes: Implementing the International Health Charter (IHR) with the recognition and exchange of information on infectious diseases in the region, the challenges and successes when Health Charter is the international drug counterfeit and poor quality drugs mainly for infectious diseases. /.
It was identified by Mr. Hoang Van Nam, Deputy Director of Animal Health at the National Steering Committee meeting on avian influenza, through 15-6 pm. Accordingly, the second consecutive week, the area country without any further local development of new services.
Now in 16 provinces, are translated into decreased markedly, many localities in several days, no new outbreaks arise more as Hai Duong, Thai Binh, Bac Ninh ... Other provinces such as Nam Dinh, Nghe An, Ha Noi ... remain temporarily in control of the service area narrow.
However, he was identified, prolonged hot weather today in the northern provinces detrimental to the health of pigs, causing translation risk arising. Prior to changes in the situation today, the Minister of Agriculture and Rural Development Cao Duc Phat suggested localities should continue to closely monitor the evolution of the epidemic, measures to terminate the translation process as soon as possible. At the same time, Minister Cao Duc Phat Animal Husbandry Department request to monitor the evolution of the market and solve problems for her child back livestock development.
While encephalitis began to "season" in the North with the number of patients are increasing fast, people still confusion over the information appears a new virus causing encephalitis in dangerous levels Nam Dinh and Bac Giang.
Appearance of new strains?
Recently, the Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology has discovered a new virus causing encephalitis in children's level of Bac Giang and Nam Dinh. Expression of the disease are high fever, convulsions and often rapidly fatal. Talking with us on this issue, Dr. Nguyen Thi Thu Yen, Head of Epidemiology - National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, said encephalitis virus by many radical causes, of which approximately 30 - 40% is due to Japanese encephalitis virus, the remaining unknown causes.
Currently scientists are studying the likely appearance of new virus causing encephalitis vaccine for children in Nam Dinh, Bac Giang. But that's just the problems being studied, rather than a formal conclusion.
TS. Tran Nhu Duong - Deputy Director of the Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology said, encephalitis virus may be caused by different viruses. Symptoms of the most common include: sudden high fever, headache, vomiting accompanied by mental symptoms from mild to severe, such as drowsiness, Libya, drowsiness, confusion, disorientation, kiss love and neurological symptoms such as convulsions, spasms, irregular movements, paralysis. In our country, besides the most important root cause is due to viral encephalitis Japanese encephalitis, the radical Left can be caused by herpes viruses, intestinal virus, encephalitis due to complications after measles, mumps, hand foot mouth ...
Now the real work has appeared a new virus causing encephalitis or not the Health Ministry announced, based on sufficient scientific evidence and practice. Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology is the research agency, if discovered new problems will report to the Ministry of Health.
Actually this is not the first appearance about a new virus causing encephalitis level in Nam Dinh and Bac Giang. Earlier, in late 2008 has information Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology discovered a new virus causing brain syndrome in Bac Giang province level. This virus was named the "nightmare" (Acmong virus) because it causes panic attacks in the patient's sleep and then patients will be comatose and death in a few hours ... Reportedly, the Ministry of Health is continuing research on this new virus.
Currently, treatment of viral encephalitis is based largely on symptoms, but no specific drug treatment. Therefore, experts recommend that epidemiological preventive measures is the best Japanese encephalitis vaccine.
Monday, June 14, 2010
Department of Animal Health, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development has decided to set up seven working groups to examine trading activity, slaughter and transportation of poultry in the provinces and cities from 14 - 25 / 6.
The delegation will assess the planning and construction of concentrated slaughter and inspect the implementation of the regulations on veterinary hygiene, sanitation and food safety in slaughterhouses, inspection at the market selling fresh food business, management and prevention of dangerous diseases such as ear diseases, avian influenza, foot and mouth ...
Test areas are in Hai Phong, Quang Ninh, Hai Duong, Hanoi, Hoa Binh, Son La, Nghe An, Ha Tinh, Thua Thien - Hue, Da Nang, Binh Dinh, Khanh Hoa, Dong Nai, Binh Duong, Binh Phuoc, Long An, Ho. City, Can Tho, An Giang, Dong Thap.